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Mutual Aid
P. Kropotkin

Page 1 of 504


MUTUAL AID 

A FACTOR OF EVOLUTION 

BY P.  KROPOTKIN 

1902 


INTRODUCTION 

Two aspects of animal life impressed me most during the
journeys which I made in my youth in Eastern Siberia and Northern
Manchuria.  One of them was the extreme severity of the struggle
for existence which most species of animals have to carry on
against an inclement Nature; the enormous destruction of life
which periodically results from natural agencies; and the
consequent paucity of life over the vast territory which fell
under my observation.  And the other was, that even in those few

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